Indira Gandhi Planetarium, Lucknow Veer Bahadur Singh Planetarium, Gorakhpur        Aryabhatt Planetarium, Rampur


Venus is the second planet from the Sun and the sixth largest among all.It is the brightest object in the sky except for the Sun and the Moon. Venus' rotation is somewhat unusual in that it is both very slow (243 Earth days per Venus day, slightly longer than Venus' year) and retrograde.
Venus is covered by a thick, rapidly spinning atmosphere, creating a scorched world with temperatures hot enough to melt lead and a surface pressure 90 times that of Earth. Because of its proximity to Earth and the way its clouds reflect sunlight, Venus appears to be the brightest planet in the sky. The mass of Venus is about four-fifths that of the Earth. The force of gravity on Venus is slightly less than on the Earth

Internal Structure of Venus:

The crust of Venus is thought to be about 50 km thick, and composed of silicious rocks.
Beneath that is the mantle, which is thought to be about 3,000 km thick. The composition of the mantle is still unknown.
The center of Venus is a solid or liquid core of iron or nickel. The planet doesn't have a large difference in temperature between the inner and outer core.

Atmosphere Composition of Venus:

Surface Pressure   93 bar(9.3Mpa)  
Carbon dioxide   ~96.5%  
Nitrogen   ~3.5%  
Sulphur dioxide   0.015%  
Atmosphere Composition   (in per cents out of 100)  
argon   0.007%  
water vapour   0.002%  
carbon monoxide   0.001 7%  
helium   0.001 2%  
neon  0.000 7%  
carbonyl sulphide  traces 
hydrogen chloride  traces 
hydrogen fluoride  traces