Indira Gandhi Planetarium, Lucknow Veer Bahadur Singh Planetarium, Gorakhpur        Aryabhatt Planetarium, Rampur


Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, is bright and can be viewed by the naked eye from Earth. In addition to being the largest, Jupiter has the greatest mass and has highest number of Satellites(63 moons). Jupiter has rings although they are very faint. It is often considered the prototype of gas giants having a diameter of 142,984 km at its equator and density to be 1.326 g/cm³.
The atmosphere of Jupiter is approximately 75% hydrogen and 24% helium by mass, with the remaining one percent of the mass consisting of other elements.The revolution period of Jupiter is 11.86 earth years.

Internal Structure of Jupiter:

Jupiter consist of a dense core probably not solid but a dense, hot liquid with a consistency like thick soup. The pressure inside Jupiter may be 30 million times greater than the pressure at the Earth's surface.
The core region is surrounded by dense metallic hydrogen, which extends outward to about 78 percent of the radius of the planet.
Above the layer of metallic hydrogen lies a transparent interior atmosphere of liquid hydrogen and gaseous hydrogen, with the gaseous portion extending downward from the cloud layer to a depth of about 1,000 km.

Atmospheric Composition of Jupiter:
Surface Pressure   20-200kPa  
Components   Percentage Composition  
hydrogen   89.8±2.0  
helium   10.2±2.0  
methane   ~0.3  
ammonia   ~0.026  
hydrogen deuteride   ~0.003  
ethane   0.0006  
water   0.0004  
ammonia   (ices)  
water   (ices)  
ammonium hydrosulphide   (ices)