Brahmagupta
Brahmagupta was born in 598 AD in Bhinmal, Rajasthan.He was the foremost
astronomer of his time. He made many advances in astronomy. Brahmagupta was the
most accomplished of the ancient Indian astronomers. His great work 'The Opening
of the Universe' is written in verse form.
His Contribution to Astronomy:
Brahmagupta wrote an important work on astronomy,"BRAHMASPUTASIDDHANTA" means
opening of the Earth. He calculated the circumference of Earth as 5,000 yojanas
(1 yojana=7.2km) He explained that since the Moon is closer to the Earth than the
Sun, the degree of the illuminated part of the Moon depends on the relative
positions of the Sun and the Moon, and this can be computed from the size of the
angle between the two bodies. Brahmagupta also calculated the instantaneous
motion of a planet, gave correct equations for parallax, and some information
related to the computation of eclipses. About the Earth's gravity he said:
"Bodies fall towards the earth as it is in the nature of the earth to attract
bodies, just as it is in the nature of water to flow.
Bhaskar
Bhaskar was also an ancient astronomer of Indian astronomy during the 7th
century. He was a great contributor to astronomy in ancient times.
His Contribution to Astronomy:
Mahabhaskariya, Laghubhaskariya and the Aryabhatiyabhashya(a commentary on the
Aryabhatiya) were some of his work. Planetary longitudes, heliacal rising and
setting of the planets, conjunctions among the planets and stars, solar and
lunar eclipses, and the phases of the Moon are among the topics Bhaskara
discusses in his astronomical treatises. In his commentary on the Aryabhatiya,
Bhaskara explains in detail Aryabhata’s method of solving linear equations and
provides a number of illustrative astronomical examples
Bhaskarcharya
He was also known as Bhaskara Acharya ("Bhaskara the teacher"), was an Indian
mathematician and an astronomer. He was born in 1114 A.D. near Bijjada Bida
which is in present day Bijapur district, Karnataka, India. Bhaskara and his
works represent a significant contribution to mathematical and astronomical
knowledge in the 12th century.
His Contribution to Astronomy:
Bhaskara was the head of an astronomical observatory at Ujjain.He authored
Siddhanta Siromani and Karanakutuhala, two books,reported on his observations of
planetary positions, conjunctions, eclipses, cosmography, geography,
mathematics, and astronomical equipment used in his research at the observatory
in Ujjain, which he headed. Bhaskara accurately defined many astronomical
quantities, including the length of the sidereal year, the time that is required
for the Earth to orbit the Sun, as 365.2588 days. The modern accepted
measurement is 365.2563 days, a difference of just 3.5 minutes. His mathematical
astronomy text Siddhanta Shiromani is written in two parts: the first part on
mathematical astronomy and the second part on the sphere.
Aryabhatta
Aryabhatta is at the top in the stack of greatest
astronomer from the classical age of indian astronomy. He was born in 476 A.D. at Patliputra,Magadha (modern
Patna, BIHAR). He studied astronomy at Nalanda University.His treatise, Aryabhatiya
presented a number of innovations in astronomy in verse form, which were
influential for many centuries.
His Contribution to Astronomy:
Aryabhata is the author of several treatises on astronomy like Aryabhatiya and
Aryasiddhanta.
His Heliocentric theory of gravitation was one of the earliest and
preceded Copernicus by a thousand years.
In the 5th century, Aryabhatta was one of the earliest persons to support the
theory that Earth is a sphere.
Aryabhatta also wrote about eclipses and the Sun being the source of moonlight,
a millennium before Copernicus and Galileo.
He already knew that the earth spins on its axis, the earth moves around the sun
and the moon rotates around the earth. He talks about the position of the planets
in relation to its movement around the sun.
He
refers to the light of the planets and the moon as reflection from the sun. He
goes as far as to explain the eclipse of the moon and the sun, day and night,
the contours of the earth, the length of the year exactly as 365 days.
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